Published by Joint press release | 15 / Aug / 2023

Against European and Tunisian anti-migrant and anti-black policies

Article published in the Manifesto on 15 August 2023 in the Manifesto, and simultaneously in Mediapart and, in Arabic, in Nawaat, the open letter of 379 researchers and members of civil society".

While Tunisia's alignment with European outsourcing policies has long been established, we denounce the current dangerous turn in the acceptance of these policies and the racist assumptions underlying them. Tunisia is now showing its own will to reinforce a system of exclusion and exploitation of people from sub-Saharan Africa. Instead of denouncing this further racist escalation, based on a populist and conspiratorial discourse in the context of the authoritarian drift that the country is undergoing, European officials instrumentalise so-called irregular migration by presenting it as a 'common plague'. In an opportunistic and irresponsible manner, the EU consolidates the presidential discourse and fuels the anti-migrant and anti-black phobia, as well as conveying the image of a Europe that helps Tunisia protect its borders and not the European ones.

We express our full solidarity with all migrants and our rejection of hate speech on both sides of the Mediterranean. As academics and members of civil society working on these issues, we also wish to counter the misinformation being spread in Tunisia by some politicians, journalists and individuals claiming to be academics who are constructing racist arguments without any factual basis. There is an urgent need to question the reasons why vulnerable populations are being used as scapegoats to hide the failure of public policies in Tunisia.

1) No, sub-Saharan nationals are not a "plague" for Tunisia.

It was the declaration by the Presidency of the Republic on 21 February 2023, which referred to 'hordes of sub-Saharan migrants' threatening 'the demographic composition' of the country, that triggered violent attacks against black people, as well as arbitrary arrests, evictions and brutal dismissals. While several embassies organised repatriations, many fled by sea - at the same time there was a dramatic increase in shipwrecks, deaths or disappearances off the Tunisian coast. Several hundred people still sleep in front of the offices of the International Organisation for Migration (IOM) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) in Tunis, demanding relocation or evacuation to safe countries.

At the beginning of July, these attacks intensified in Sfax, following the death of a Tunisian citizen, blamed on a sub-Saharan national, and shortly before the stabbing of a Beninese man. In a context where hate speech is still freely disseminated, Tunisian security forces intensified their raids in Sfax, deporting at least 1,200 sub-Saharan nationals to the borders with Libya and Algeria in militarised and inaccessible desert areas. Without water, without food, often badly beaten, many of them managed to get pictures of their suffering - a reality denied by the Home Office. To date, at least 20 deaths have been confirmed by various sources, although this is likely to be a gross underestimate.

Behind the racist categories of 'sub-Saharan', 'African' or 'irregular migrants', there are schoolgirls and students, workers, refugees and asylum seekers, people who have come for medical treatment or who have been waiting for years for a residence permit, as well as people who cannot leave the territory to renew their visas. The diversity of these people's paths and conditions, as well as their very humanity, is rendered invisible, leading to their further marginalisation and dehumanisation. Many of them are unable to regularise their situation because of an outdated and inconsistent legal framework and slow and complex administrative procedures. As is the case for many Tunisian migrants in Europe, the situation of migrants in Tunisia is made irregular by laws and practices that divide people from the African continent into 'desirable' and 'undesirable' migrants and criminalise a large proportion of its youth. In contrast, the irregular presence of Western migrants - which is very common in Tunisia due to the same bureaucratic dysfunctions - is not seen as a security problem.

Moreover, there is no evidence to support the claim that migrant workers are responsible for the deterioration of the Tunisian economy, as suggested by the xenophobic Vulgate. In reality, like many Tunisians, they are often exploited and exposed to food insecurity and vulnerability. Rather, the current economic crisis is caused by the lack of economic prospects, internationally supported austerity policies, the management of public debt or the inability of the state to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

2) No, the Memorandum with the EU does not protect Tunisian sovereignty.

In his public speeches, President Kaïs Saïed seems to be defending Tunisia's sovereignty, declaring that the country will not accept to become a "relocation country" for migrants expelled from Europe, nor a "transit or settlement country", nor to be reduced to the role of Europe's gendarme.

However, the Memorandum - in which the EU pledges financial support for border management - shows that the government continues to integrate the objectives of European policy by fully committing itself to the securitisation of the EU's borders. The president is following in the footsteps of his predecessors and may even go further in externalisation, as the agreement mentions 'a system for identifying and returning irregular migrants already in Tunisia to their country of origin'. This would suggest the development of the 'hotspot' approach, whereby migratory flows are managed at the EU's external borders, in countries such as Tunisia, and access to the European continent is completely prevented. While the government claims to reject the settlement of migrants from sub-Saharan Africa, the closure of the borders contributes to their confinement in Tunisia.

3) No, neither the Tunisian nor the European population will benefit.

As with the migration agreements signed before and after 2011, this memorandum was signed in a non-transparent manner, without parliamentary debate and without consultation with trade unions or civil society. Moreover, the memorandum does not contain any precise guarantees on respect for human rights or measures to control the use of donations to the Tunisian security forces.

The EU insists on giving Tunisia carte blanche, a strategy that is all the more irresponsible for being ineffective. As long as the structural socio-economic causes of so-called irregular migration are not addressed and access to mobility is not radically rethought, the securitarian approach will only make the crossings more deadly and strengthen the traffickers.

This memorandum will increase the asymmetry between the EU and Tunisia in terms of access to mobility and opportunities, contributing in particular to the so-called 'brain drain' and to economic models that fuel the causes of migration and inequality. The vague quid pro quo proposed by the EU such as visa facilitation and 'talent partnerships' are part of those promises made to Tunisia in the past that have never been kept. The externalisation of European borders thus affects all migrants considered 'undesirable' on the continent, Tunisian as well as other African countries.

On the other hand, the willingness expressed in the memorandum to 'preserve human life' is hardly credible, given that since 2014 some 27,000 people have died or gone missing in the Mediterranean, due to the same European policy that has withdrawn from sea rescues and effectively criminalised them.

The only way to truly protect the interests and dignity of Tunisian and African nationals present in the country is to activate channels for listening and constructive dialogue with the Tunisian and non-Tunisian populations affected by these policies, with the various associations representing them, and with social actors and research communities. These exchanges should contribute to the emergence of a collective reflection on alternative political solutions to the current deadly border management, recognising migration as a right and an asset for all.

List of signatories:
1. Abbas Waed, Amnesty International, Palestine
2. Abbes Ahmed, Research Director at the CNRS, France
3. Abdallah Maha, Human rights researcher and advocate, Palestine
4. Abdelfattah Ahmad, Human rights defender, Egypt
5. Abdelhamid Maha, Associated researcher, CAREP, Founder of VFTN, France/Tunisia
6. Abdeljaoued Héla, Doctor, Civil society activist, Tunisia
7. Abdessamad Hichem, Historian and translator, member of the Association Nachaz- Dissonances, Tunisia/France
8. Aboubakari Razakou, AEI, Togo section, Togo
9. Abubakr Bayan, PhD student, University of Yale, United States
10. Achelaritei Dorina, Mediterranea Berlin e.V., Germany
11. Afid Fatna, Reseracher in sociology of migration, Morocco
12. Agier Michel, Director of Studies, EHESS, France
13. Ahed Hala, Lawyer and human rights advocate, Jordan
14. Aïssa Lotfi, Higher education professor, University of Tunis, Tunisia
15. Aissaoui Leïla, Sociologist e feminist activist, France
16. Ait Messaoud Ismahan, PhD student and lecturer in women's rights and gender justice, Algeria
17. Ak Firat, Legal service operator for migration, Italy
18. Akrimi Yasmine, PhD student in politcal science, Belgium/Tunisia
19. Al Majali Solenn, PhD student in anthropology, Jordan
20. Al-Kashef Muhammad, Migreurop, Germany
21. Alaspli Ali, Researcher, Libya
22. Alkan Hilal, Researcher, Leibniz Zentrum Moderner Orient, Germany
23. Allal Tewfik, Algerian emigration activist in France, France
24. Alzein Ali, Bees & Refugees, United Kingdom
25. Amamou Hayet, University of Tunis, Tunisia
26. Amilhat Szary Anne-Laure, Professor, Grenoble Alpes University, France
27. Ammari Hassane, Association for migrants in a vulnerable situation, AMSV, Oujda, Morocco
28. Aousji Haifa, Student Tunisia
29. Araari Najet, Researcher, Tunisia
30. Asseraf Arthur, Cambridge University, United Kingdom
31. Awad Nada, Advocacy coordinator, Switzerland
32. Aydi Mohamed Wajdi, Lawyer at the Court of Cassation, Expert in local governance and migration, Sfax, Tunisia
33. Ayeb Habib, Emeritus professor, Paris 8 University, Founder of the Observatory for Food Sovereignty and the Environment OSAE, film director, Tunisia
34. Azarova Valentina, Autonomous centre for feminist research, de:border//migration justice collective, Greece
35. Azua Alexandra, Lawyers for Justice in Libya, United Kingdom
36. Bagnéris Lisa, Student, Sciences Po Bordeaux, France
37. Bahri Wafa, Colorado Denver University, United States
38. Baladi Viviane, Research director, CNRS, France
39. Balghouthi Mounira, Researcher in philosophy, Tunisia
40. Ballarin Marie Pierre, Research director, Research Institute for Development, France
41. Bargaoui Sami, La Manouba University, Sentiers-Massarib Association, Tunisia
42. Bedhioufi Hafsi, Senior professor, La Manouba University, Tunisia
43. Belgasmi Jihene, Amnesty International, Tunisia
44. Bellezza Sara, PhD student, Free University of Berlin, Germany
45. Bello Adamou Mahamadou, PhD student, Abdou Moumouni University in Niamey, Niger
46. Ben Amor Romdhane, FTDES – Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights, Tunisia
47. Ben Arfa Slim, Political and civic activist, Tunisia
48. Ben Ghazi Mohamed, Libya Crimes Watch, Libya
49. Ben Hadj Hassen Asma, PhD student, Bayreuth University, Tunisia
50. Ben Haj Yahia Fathi, Writer and translator, member of the Nachaz- Dissonances Association, Tunisia
51. Ben Ismail Rim, Tunis Institute of Higher Management, Tunisia
52. Ben Jemia Monia, Accademician, Tunisia
53. Ben Jouira Asrar, President of the Association Intersection pour les Droits et les Libertés, Tunisia
54. Ben Mami Riadh Amine, PhD student, Aix-Marseille University, Tunisia/France
55. Ben Said Rim, Data scientist, Japan
56. Ben Said Sarra, Association Aswat Nissa, Tunisia
57. Ben Slama Raja, Professor in higher education, Tunisia
58. Ben Youssef Mohamed Slim, University of Lille, Tunisia
59. Benabdallah Fayçal, President of the FTCR – Fédération des Tunisiens pour une Citoyenneté des deux Rives, France
60. Benarab Attou Malika, Former Member of the European Parliament, France
61. Bendix Daniel , Professor, Friedensau Adventist University, Germany
62. Benhaïm Yohanan, Scientific resident in charge of contemporary studies, Institut Français d’Études Anatoliennes (IFEA), France/Turkey
63. Berrada Omar, Writer and scholar, Morocco
64. Bessis Sophie, Historian, Tunisia/France
65. Billiet Juliette, University of Ghent, Belgium
66. Bisiaux Sophie-Anne, Migreurop, France
67. Chehou Azizou, Coordinator Alarm Phone Sahara, Agadez Niger
68. Bodini Daniela Cornelia, Associated with Todo Cambia, Italy
69. Bouattour Souad, ATFD – Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, Tunisia
70. Boubakri Hassen, CeTuMA, Tunisia
71. Bouchoucha Hanene, Nawazi organization for Gender studies, Libya
72. Bouden Hajer, Translator, member of the Sentiers-Massarib Association, Tunisia
73. Bourogaa Ismahen, Advocacy manager, Tunisia
74. Boyle Catey, Phd student, Harvard University, United States
75. Braude Richard, Arci Porco Rosso, Italy
76. Bresnu Xavier, Activist in various Tunisian and international NGOs, Tunisia
77. Broué Michel, Emeritus professor, Paris Cité University and Institut Universitaire de France, France
78. Cadat-Lampe Mellouki, Senior researcher, Movisie, Netherlands
79. Calame Claude, Studies director EHESS, Parigi, France
80. Campochiaro Riccardo, Lawyer, Italy
81. Capelli Clara, Economist, Bethlehem University, Palestine
82. Capriata Marco, Lawyer, ASGI, Italy
83. Carastathis Anna, Co-director, Autonomous Center for Feminist Research, Greece
84. Carlier Julie, University of Ghent, Ghent Centre for Global Studies, Belgium
85. Carmassi Caterina, Lawyer, Italy
86. Carrey-Conte Fanélie, General secretary, La Cimade, France
87. Casier Marlies, Host professor, University of Ghent, Belgium
88. Cassarino Jean-Pierre, College of Europe, Poland
89. Castro Neira Yerko, Iberoamerican University, Mexico
90. Cavallo Delphine, Design engineer, University of Aix-Marseille, France
91. Chadid Rula, Director, Sweden
92. Chairi Taoufik, ADAM Association, Tunisia
93. Chastanet Monique, Historician, CNRS, France
94. Chebbi Hanen, Sfax University, Tunisia
95. Chennaoui Henda, Researcher in sociology and feminist activist, Tunisia
96. Cherbib Mouhieddine, Committee for the respect of freedoms and human rights in Tunisia, CRLDHT, France
97. Chikhaoui Hazem, Philosophy teacher, Tunisia
98. Chilliard Yves, Research director, INRAE, retired, France
99. Chitour Yacine, Professor, Paris-Saclay University, France
100. Chouicha Kaddour, University professor, trade unionist and activist for human rights, Algeria
101. Chouiter Sofiane, Justitia Centre for the Legal Protection of Human Rights in Algeria, Canada
102. Colasanto Paola, Lawyer, Italy
103. Constantinou Petros, KEERFA-Movement United Against Racism and Fascist Threat, Greece
104. Córdova Edgar, Anthropologist, CIESAS-Mexico City, Member of the MADAR Network, Mexico
105. Correale Francesco, Historician, CNRS, Tours, France
106. Costa Santos Adriana, Researcher, Saint-Louis University, Bruxelles, Belgium
107. Cuttitta Paolo, University of Genoa, Italy
108. Dahmani Ahmed, Retired academician, Algeria
109. Dakhli Leyla, CNRS, France
110. Dakhlia Jocelyne, Historician, EHESS, France
111. Daoud Dalal, Waterloo University, Canada
112. Dayan-Herzbrun Sonia, Emeritus professor, University of Paris Cité, France
113. De Genova Nicholas, University of Houston, United States
114. De Ley Herman, Emeritus professor, University of Ghent, Belgium
115. De Nicola Armando Maria, Lawyer, ASGI, Italy
116. Del Biaggio Cristina, Grenoble Alpes University, France
117. Dental Monique, Presidentand Founder od the feminist network "Ruptures", France
118. Dickins James, University of Leeds, United Kingdom
119. Direche Karima, Research Director, CNRS, France
120. Dişli Hüseyin, PhD student, Kent University, Turkey/United Kingdom
121. Dridi Mohsen, Associative activist, France
122. Drissi Emna, Pacte solidaire des entreprises, Tunisia
123. Dupont Victor, IREMAM, France
124. Eberl Hans-Georg, Afrique-Europe Interact, Wien, Austria
125. Echchkkhi Imane, Alarm Phone, Morocco
126. El Ayeb Meriam, Activist, Researcher in environmental law, Tunisia
127. El Fani Nadia, Film maker, France
128. El Fargi Amel, University professor, Tunisia
129. El Hamel Chouki, Professor, Arizona State University, United States
130. El Hosseiny Salma, Human rights defenders and lawyer, Egypt
131. Elleuch Mahdi, Legal Agenda – Tunisia, Tunisia
132. Elsayeh Mohamed, PhD researcher, France
133. Enclos Philippe, Retired law teacher-researcher, Lille University, trade unionist, France
134. Fayman Sonia, Independent sociologist, France
135. Fdhila Sahar, Sfax University, Tunisia
136. Feltrin Lorenzo, Researcher, University of Birmingham, United Kingdom
137. Ferchichi Wahid, Law professor, University of Carthage, Tunisia
138. Ferraris Valeria, University of Turin, Italy
139. Ferreri Veronica, Marie Curie Fellow, Ca’ Foscari University, Venice, Italy
140. Fersaoui Abdelouhab, Political activist, Algeria
141. Fetjani Chérif, Honorary Professor, Lyon 2 University, France
142. Fiore Ornella, Lawyer, Turin, Italy
143. Fouad Mostafa, HuMENA for Human Rights and Civic Engagement, Belgium
144. Frawes Yosra, Femminist and former president of the Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, Tunisia
145. Frigerio Michele, Researcher, CNRS France
146. Frihi Dorra, Master degree student, Ca' Foscari University Venice and Paul-Valey University Montpellier 3, Tunisia/Italy
147. Furri Filippo, Mimetis, France
148. Gad Nouran, PhD student, University of Aix-Marseille, France
149. Galai Ahmed, Pdt Lay-Mediterranean Solidarity, Tunis, Tunisia
150. Gamez Selma Alejandro, Law Firm Red Jurídica, Spain
151. Gandolfi Paola, University of Bergamo, Italy
152. Garfi Reem, Mnemty Association, Tunisia
153. Garnaoui Wael, Professor and researcher, Research group Border Studies, University of Sousse, Tunisia
154. Garny Naïké, PhD student, KU Leuven, Belgium
155. Gautero Jean-Luc, Côte d’Azur University, France
156. Geisser Vincent, President of the Centre for Information and Studies on International Migration, France
157. Gerbaudo Marco, PhD student, Bocconi University, Italy
158. Giglioli Ilaria, University of San Francisco, United States
159. Giovannelli Stefano, Master Law Student, Italy
160. Girr Katja, Researcher, University of Bonn, Germany
161. Giusa Caterina, Sociologist, University of Western Brittany, France
162. Giusti Martina, Lawyer, Italy
163. Gomez Michael, New York University, United States
164. Gonzalez-Dogan Shyla, Arizona State University, United States
165. Gordon Neve, Queen Mary University in London, United Kingdom
166. Grangaud Isabelle, Research director, CNRS, France
167. Grewal Sharan, Professor, William & Mary, United States
168. Grisoni Alessandra, Sociologist, International cooperation, Italy
169. Gross-Wyrtzen Leslie, Professor, Università of Yale, United States
170. Grüneisl Katharina, University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
171. Guéhiss Zeineb, Feminist and associative activist, Tunisia
172. Guessoumi Mouldi, Sociologist, professor and researcher, University of Tunis, Tunisia
173. Guezmir Asma, Professor, University of Tunis, Tunisia
174. Guien Jeanne, Independent researcher, France
175. Haider Huda, P2P Purchase Tui, Tunisia
176. Hajaji Ahlem, La Manouba University, Tunisia
177. Hamdoun Salah, PhD student, Arizona StateUniversity, United States
178. Hammami Mohamed-Dhia, PhD student, Syracuse University, United States
179. Hammami Cyrine, Association pour la promotion du droit à la différence, Tunisia
180. Hammouda Naoufel, Association for the Protection of Wetlands in Southern Tunisia, Tunisia
181. Hammouri Shahd, Law professor, University of Kent, United Kingdom
182. Hamoud Maher, University of Leuven (KUL), Belgium
183. Hamtoun Abdulsalam, Constitution Drafting Assembly Libya, Libya
184. Hamza Nabila, Sociologist, Tunisia
185. Hanin Maher, Researcher, FTDES – Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights, Tunisia
186. Hassam Fouad, Human rights defender, LADDH, Algeria
187. Hayat Samuel, Researcher, CNRS, Sciences Po, France
188. Hedhili Abderrahmane, President of the FTDES – Tunisian Forum for Economic and Social Rights, Tunisia
189. Hegasy Sonja, ZMO, Germany
190. Heuckmann Helena, Independent Citizen, Germany
191. Hkiri Roua, Master's degree student in Contemporary History, Project Coordinator at the Federation of Tunisians for Citizenship of the Two Shores, Tunisia
192. Hubert Hanelore, Independent citizen, Belgium
193. Idir Rachid, PST activist, Algeria
194. Jabary Omar, Salamanca ULB, Belgium
195. Jamar Borsista Astrid, Senior post-doctoral student, University of Antwerp, Belgium
196. Jebnoun Noureddine, Member of the Centre for Contemporary Arab Studies, Walsh School of Foreign Service, Georgetown University, Washington D.C., United States
197. Jemaa Ahmed, Researcher and independent activist, Tunisia
198. Jendoubi Kamel, Honorary President, EuroMed droits, Tunisia/France
199. Jinkang Alagie, Doctor, University of Bologna, Italy
200. Jla Emna, Independent Tunisian citizen Tunisia
201. Jones Chris, Statewatch, United Kingdom
202. Josa Balint, Director, UNITED for Intercultural Action, Hungary
203. Jouili Jeanette, Syracuse University, United States
204. Jungfer Eberhard, Doctor, Migration-Control.Info Project, Germany
205. Kaba Mahmoud, Student-researcher, Central University of Tunis, Guinea
206. Kacha Yasmine, Researcher in human rights, Algeria
207. Kadano Hassan, Aman Against Discrimination (AAD), Libya
208. Kalir Barak, University of Amsterdam, Netherland
209. Karvala David, Writer, anti-racist activist and member of Marx21.net, Spain
210. Kassou Mehdi, General director, Belrefugees, Belgium
211. Kfoury Assaf, Professor of Informatics, Boston University, United States
212. Khalil Nour, Consultant and researcher on migration and border policies, Egypt
213. Khelifa Samiha, La Manouba University, Tunisia
214. Khenissi Mohamed, Associative activist, Tunisia
215. King Stephen, Government professor, Georgetown University, United States
216. Klaus Enrique, Professor, Côte d’Azur University, France
217. Kleinschmidt Malte, Doctor, Research assistant, Leibniz University, Hannover, Germany
218. Kniss Ali, Activist and researcher, Tunisia
219. Kola Ermira, Social worker, Italy
220. Komer Monica, PhD student, University of Wisconsin, United States
221. Kouri Mousa, Aman Against Discrimination, Libya
222. Kwongang Christian, AESAT-Association of African Students and Interns in Tunisia, Tunisia
223. Laakkonen Ville, PhD student, Tampere University, Finland
224. Labbize Souad, Writer and translator, France
225. Lachenal Perrine, CNRS, France
226. Lafratta Daniela, Lawyer, ASGI, Italy
227. Lahmar Nadège, Researcher in human rights, France/Tunisia
228. Langlois Thomas, Lest, France
229. Latif Chokri, President of the Organisation against torture in Tunisia, Tunisia
230. Latiri Chiraz, Professor and researcher, La Manouba University, Tunisia
231. Le Pape Loïc, MCF, University of Paris 1, Panthéon-Sorbonne, France
232. Leclerc-Olive Michèle, Retired researcher, CNRS, France
233. Leclercq Philippe, Secretary, LDH Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, France
234. Limam M’hamed, Dentist, Tunisia
235. Loschi Chiara, Postdoc researcher, University of Bologna, Italy
236. Louis-Puttick Tigs, Director at Reclaim The Sea, United Kingdom
237. Luceno Moreno Marta, Associated researcher, Gender & Feminist Lab, University of Liège, Tunisia/Belgium/Spain
238. M. Sara, Researcher and human rights advocate, Egypt
239. M. Dinanga Aser, Business Manager, Democratic Republic of Congo
240. Mabrouk Sihem, Lawyer, Tunisia
241. Machta Insaf, Accademician, film criticism and president of the entiers-Massarib association, Tunisia
242. Maestri Andrea, Human rights lawyer, Italy
243. Magugliani Noemi, Law professor at Kent Law School, de:border //migration justice collective, United Kingdom
244. Mahazi Jasmin, Doctor, Leibniz-Zentrum, Moderner Orient, Germany
245. Maitte Corine, Professor of modern history, president of the French Association for the History of the Worlds of Work, France
246. Majed Ziad, Politologist, University professor, The American University of Paris, France
247. Mancini Patrizia, Activist and blogger, Tunisia
248. Mani Souad, Assistant University of Sousse, visual artist and president of the Delta association, Tunisia
249. Mann Carol, Associated researcher, Université de Paris 8, France
250. Mardam Bey Farouk, Editor, France
251. Marjane Faycal, Human resources manager, Poland
252. Matri Khaoula , Faculty of Arts and Humanities, Sousse, Tunisia
253. Mazzara Federica, Senior Research Fellow in Cultural Studies, University of Westminster, United Kingdom
254. Mbolela Emmanuel, ARCOM – Association of refugees and migrant communities in Morocco, Morocco
255. Mehdi Oumayma, Legal Agenda-Tunisia, Tunisia
256. Meister Maler, Climate Action Points, Germany
257. Mejdi Ihsan, Exeter University, Tunisia
258. Melliti Imed, Professor in sociology at University of Tunis El Manar, Tunisia
259. Messaoudi Aziz, Transparency Morocco, Morocco
260. Mezzadra Sandro, University of Bologna, Italy
261. Mietton Michel, Emeritus professor, University of Lyon, France
262. Mimouni Jamal, Professor, University of Constantine 1, Constantine, Algeria
263. Minawi Mostafa, Associated University, Cornell University, United States
264. Mirto Giorgia, PhD student anthropology department, Columbia University, Italy
265. Mohsen-Finan Khadija, University professor and researcher, France
266. Montana Ismael, University of Northern Illinois, United States
267. Montpetit Mathilde, Postgraduate student, New York University, United States
268. Mora Mariana, Associated researcher and professor, CIESAS, Mexico
269. Mora-Kpai Idrissou, Ithaca College, United States
270. Morgan Scott, Red Eagle Enterprises, United States
271. Morreale Laura, PhD student, University of Perugia, Italy
272. Mostafa Basma, Journalist, Germany
273. Mrad Dali Inès, Researcher, Tunisia
274. Munro Beth, Organisation, Tunisia
275. Musallam Fuad, Researcher, London School of Economics LSE, United Kingdom
276. Mustafa Ahmed, Libya Crimes Watch, Libya
277. Mzioudet Huda, University of Toronto, Canada
278. Nacer El Idrissi, President of Association of North African Workers of France, France
279. Naceur Sofian Philip, Journalist, Tunisia
280. Naïli Falestin, Histrician, France
281. Nakhli Zahra, ATFD – Tunisian Association of Democratic Women, Sousse, Tunisia
282. Nasser Noura, PhD student in sociology, London School of Economics LSE, United Kingdom/Lebanon
283. Niang Mamadou, Head of the Migration Department, CGTM, Mauritania
284. Njah Firas, Researcher in kigratio studies, Activist for human rights, Tunisia
285. Noret Joël, Professor, Free University of Bruxelles, Belgium
286. Novaire Rashid, Writer, Ambo-Anthos, Netherland
287. Odasso Laura, Temporary professor, University of Paris Cité URMIS, ICM, Collège de France, France
288. Omar Fatma, El-Tahalof Organization for legal support, Libya
289. Omran Mohamed, Centre for Support for Democratic Transition and Human Rights DAAM, Egypt/Tunisia
290. Oualdi M’hamed, Professor, Sciences Po, France
291. Özgür Ergün, Doctor, Free university of Berlin, Germany
292. Ozkan Selim, Arizona State University e Yildiz Technical University, Turkey
293. Pagano Chiara, University of Graz, Italy
294. Pagnoulle Christine, University of Liège, Belgium
295. Paillet Arthur, Student, University of Paris-Dauphine-EHESS, France
296. Parikh Shreya, Sciences Po Paris e UNC-Chapel Hill, France/India
297. Parker Christopher, University of Ghent, Belgium
298. Pasquero Alberto, Lawyer, Italy
299. Paveau Marie-Anne, Professor, University of Sorbonne Paris Nord, France
300. Perarnaud Clément, VUB, Belgium
301. Perl Gerhild, Adjunct professor, University of Trier, Germany
302. Perrin Delphine, Researcher at IRD, France
303. Pezzani Lorenzo, associated professor, University of Bologna, Italy
304. Pfister Mariette, University of Sorbonne Nouvelle, Paris, France
305. Pianoforte Donato, Lawyer, Italy
306. Plaschke Jakob, Journalist and researcher, Tunisia/Denmark
307. Pliez Olivier, Research director, CNRS, France
308. Pluta Audrey, IREMAM, France
309. Pouessel Stephanie, Researcher and activist, Tunisia
310. Prescod-Weinstein Chanda, Associated professor, New Hampshire University, United States
311. Prochasson Dominique, Retired associated professor, University of Paris Cité, France
312. Proserpio Anna, Lawyer, Italy
313. Rabier Christelle, EHESS, France
314. Rahmoune Aissa, FIDH, Algeria
315. Raiss-Tousi Ali, Birkbeck University of London, United Kingdom
316. Ramello Luca, OnBorders, Italy
317. Rasberry Vaughn, associated professor in English language, Stanford University, United States
318. Ray Carina, Associated professor, University of Michigan, United States
319. Redissi Hamadi, Professor, University of Tunis, Tunisia
320. Rees Peter, Goldsmiths College, University of London, United Kingdom
321. Rivetti Paola, Dublin City University, Ireland
322. Ross Eric, Al Akhawayn University, Ifrane, Morocco
323. Rouatbi Ahlem, Activist for human rights, France
324. Rouland Betty, Institut Convergences Migrations, France
325. Saba Rasha, Head of Middle East and North Africa Programmes, United Kingdom
326. Said Salam, Researcher, Germany
327. Said Abdallah, Associative President, Tunisia
328. Salama Karim, Activist for human rights, Libya
329. Salehi Mariam, Researcher, Free University of Berlin, Germany
330. Salomon Stefan, Amsterdam University, Netherlands
331. Santorso Simone, Professor, Sussex University, United Kingdom
332. Sarsam Simone, Independent citizen, Tunisia
333. Savvides Leandros, KISA – Equality, support, anti-racism, Cyprus
334. Scaglioni Marta, Postdoc researcher, Cà Foscari University, Venice, Italy
335. Scherr Albert, Professor, Teaching University, Freiburg, Germany
336. Schiavone Benedetta, Social worker, Italy
337. Schiller Moya, Seebrücke, Germany
338. Seikaly Sherene, UCSB, United States
339. Serekberhan Mahder, PhD student, Syracuse University, United States
340. Shannon Jonathan, Professor, University of New York, United States
341. Sieder Rachel, CIESAS, Mexico City, Mexico
342. Snijders Arthemis, University of Ghent, Belgium
343. Sossi Federica, Bergamo University, Italy
344. Soua Lokman, Flahm, Tunisia,
345. Speiser Claire, Engeneer, France
346. Sprumont Manon, Independent citizen, Belgium
347. Stege Ulrich, Lawyer, faculty member, International University College of Turin (IUC), Italy
348. Stierl Maurice, Doctor, Osnabrück University, Germany
349. Stoiber Andreas, Amsterdam University, Netherlands
350. Streiff-Fénart Jocelyne, Director Emeritus of Research, CNRS, France
351. Suber David, PhD student, University College London UCL, Italy/United Kingdom
352. Tabbabi Khaled, Researcher in sociology, Faculty of Human and Social Sciences, Tunis, Tunisia
353. Talbi Alaa, Researcher in history, Tunisia
354. Tebai Ikram, Master's student in Migration Studies, Higher Institute of Human Sciences, Tunis, Tunisia
355. Thibault Adrien, Postdoctoral researcher in political science, University of Strasbourg/IRMC Tunis, France
356. Thiry Alexis, Legal advisor, MENA Rights Group, Switzerland
357. Tlili Jalel, Accademician, University of Tunisi El Manar, Tunisia
358. Touati Merzoug, Journalist, Algeria
359. Truddaiu Julien, Solidary citizen, Belgium
360. Turner Lewis, Professor in international politics, Newcastle University, United Kingdom
361. Van Hecken Gert, Associate Professor, Antwerp University, Belgium
362. Van Outryve Sixtine, Doctoral candidate in law, UC Louvain, Belgium
363. Verdeil Eric, Professor, Sciences Po Paris, France
364. Vicari Giulia, Lawyer for human rights, ASGI, Italy
365. Wagner Izabela, Professor in Sociology, University of Paris-City, URMIS, France
366. Wahli Khaled, Aman Against Discrimination, Libya
367. Wenger Carole, University of Liège, Belgium
368. Weslaty Lilia, Adala For All, Tunisia
369. Yacoubi Souad, Activist, Amnesty International, Tunisia
370. Yambio David, Refugees in Libya, Libya/Tunisia,
371. Yotedje Franck, Executive director, Afrique Intelligence, Tunisia
372. Zagaria Valentina, anthropologist, Manchester University, Tunisia/United Kingdom
373. Zagaria Cecilia, Postdoctoral researcher, Wageningen University, Netherlands
374. Zalila Ikbal, La Manouba University, Tunis, Tunisia
375. Zammouri Najet, Professor, first vice-president of the LTDH-Tunisian League for Human Rights, Tunisia
376. Zemni Sami, Professor, Ghent University, Department of Conflict & Development Studies, Belgium
377. Znaien Nessim, Junior professor, Marburg University, Germany
378. Zorzella Nazzarena, Lawyer, ASGI, Italy
379. Zribi Hamadi, Activist, Tunisia

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