News (EN)

Mare Jonio, wrong question in Ragusa investigation

The prosecution links solidarity and profit: hypothesis of a crime that does not exist

By STEFANO ZIRULIA, Jurist at Milan University, for l’Avvenire, edition of 5 March 2021.

Dear Director,

“They did it for financial gain, not out of solidarity.” The serious charges that have been slithering around for days made against the crew of the Mare Jonio regarding the transport to Pozzallo of 27 migrants rescued at sea by the Danish merchant ship, Etienne,  can be summarized in such a statement. Claiming to have evidence that the transfer of shipwrecked people from the Danish ship to the Italian one was based on a business transaction, Ragusa’s Public Prosecutor’s Office has opened a case for aiding and abetting illegal immigration. The Prosecutor’s Office alleges that the owner of the Danish shipping company deposited a significant sum of money in return for the service rendered by the Italian organization. Even though the examination of what actually took place will occur during the court proceedings, the emphasis put upon economic matters objectively seems disproportionate and it distracts from the real issues regarding this matter. In fact, in Italy, the personal responsibility involved in the crime of aiding and abetting illegal immigration does not lie in whether one has acted for financial gain; rather simply, the crime lies in illegally transporting foreigners who have no documents to Italy (Article 12, Consolidated Act on Immigration). If the act is committed for financial gain, then an aggravating factor is taken into account and more severe penalties apply. However, the offence exists even in the case where there is no financial gain. This is exactly how the issue of the “crime of solidarity” was created. Italian law, as it is currently written, brings to the stand both those acting for financial gain and those whose objectives are unselfish.

However, a recent decision by the Court of Appeals (the court which declared Carola Rackete’s arrest unlawful at the beginning of 2020) has finally made clear that Article 12 of the Consolidated Act on Immigration is not absolute nor does it stand alone. It must be interpreted and applied by judges while taking into consideration how it fits within the given legal framework, including the international laws which regulate rescue operations at sea.  According to the Court of Appeals, this is the reason why the transport to Italy of shipwrecked people cannot be considered “illegal”- not even when they are undocumented. The duty to aid and rescue human lives at risk is decreed by the Conventions on Maritime Law (i.e. United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, International Convention on Maritime Search and Rescue, International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea) and this duty overrides any state interests regarding border protection.

If this is the case, then let’s turn our attention back to current events. The game of criminal responsibility of Mare Jonio’s crew is not being played on the field of (alleged) monetary profit. But rather, yet again, the crime is the carrying out of the duty of rescue at sea. And, because that duty includes not only the peaceful rescue of shipwrecked people but also the subsequent disembarkation to a safe port, it begs the question whether Mediterranea’s crew’s intervention of taking onboard 27 migrants served to resolve a deadlocked situation that had resulted in the unjustified delay of disembarkment.

According to available information, it seems that the answer to this question is “yes.” The migrants were on board the Etienne for 37 days. Clearly, this was a longer period than what triggered charges for kidnapping in the Gregoretti and Open Arms cases. The physical and psychological wellbeing of the 27 migrants was progressively deteriorating and their repeated requests for help were ignored. Faced with the inaction of the authorities, Mare Jonio’s intervention did nothing other than guarantee that these people were brought to a safe port “in a timely manner” as required by the Convention of Hamburg, which was ratified by Italy. Just as in Rackete’s case, yet again, the carrying out of duty means the crime does not exist.  To discuss the aggravating factor of financial gain without discussing aiding and abetting illegal immigration is like planning to furnish a house that does not yet have a roof or walls- it is nonsense. Ragusa’s Public Prosecutor’s Office is definitely aware that this is nonsense. The discussion surrounding this event should also be made aware of this.

News (EN)

Press Release- Monday, March 1, 2021

This morning at dawn, a major police operation against Mediterranea Saving Humans was carried out. Ragusa’s public prosecutor’s office executed search warrants involving dozens of agents throughout Italy: in homes, in social centers, and on the ship, Mare Jonio. The charges are serious but the real target is the civil rescue operation at sea that Mediterranea has carried out since 2018 through its shipping company, Idra social shippping, which provides the association with the search and rescue ship and manages its crews and equipment.

Ragusa’s public prosecutor has made public his personal crusade against ONGs many times having declared that “it is necessary to not allow for the idea that removing migrants from the hands of the Libyans is acceptable.” What happened today is a true and real “judiciary theorem” in which the activities of search and rescue are assumed to be prearranged as profit-making schemes. This hypothesis so contrived that the primary and true objective of this operation is obvious: to create “a mud slinging machine” as we have often seen in action in our country- from the case of Mimmo Lucano to present-day investigations of anyone involved in supporting migrants who travel the Baltic route, and the shooting point blank of anyone, who like us, does not resign themselves to the already hundreds of deaths of women, men and children left to die in the Mediterranean since the beginning of the year or to the already thousands captured at sea and deported to the Libyan concentration camps that are financed with the money of the European Union and Italy. The searches are meant to find “evidence” because the charges, despite thousands of hours of phone taps and surveillance, are, in reality, founded on speculation that will melt like snow under the sun.

The rescue of 27 shipwrecked people by the Maersk Etienne who were abandonned at sea in betwen Malta and Lampedusa for 38 days on board a container ship which brough them to safety is the event under examination. This event was named “the shame of Europe,” this inhumane abandonment, the longest standoff in memory involving shipwrecked people who in theory, according to International Conventions, have the right to reach a safe port “promptly.” Idra social shipping has never been involved in anything illegal and will prove this in the appropriate venue. And, Mediterranea will not stop because of this sad and predictable attack. Mediterranea will continue to be at sea- there where crimes of slaughter, torture, rape and persecution are carried out.

News (EN)

9 February 2021 CommemorAction: Solidarity with the families of the 91 people who disappeared at sea!

By Alarm Phone – to participate info here.

One year ago, on 9 February 2020, at 04.09 AM, the Alarm Phone was called by a group of 91 people who were in distress on a deflating black rubber boat off Garabulli, Libya. They were in panic, but they managed to clearly communicate their GPS coordinates, which Alarm Phone immediately relayed to the Italian and Maltese authorities, as well as to the so-called Libyan coastguard.

At 05.35h CET, the people in distress called the Alarm Phone for the last time. Contact with the boat was lost ever since.

The so-called Libyan coastguard, financed and trained by Italian and European authorities in their efforts to delegate border controls and border violence, told Alarm Phone that they had no intention to search and rescue the people in distress “because the detention centers were full”. 

That day, another boat was rescued to Malta, and many hoped this was the boat that had alerted Alarm Phone. However, it quickly became clear that this was a second boat in distress: a white rather than a black boat, with 82 instead of 91 people on board. 

Due to the silence by authorities on the fate of the black rubber boat, as well as of most boats in distress in the Central Mediterranean Sea, the Alarm Phone as well as relatives and friends of people in distress, often have to rely on fragmented information and try to match crucial – although minimal – details to understand what happened to people in distress. 

The days that followed 9 February 2020 clearly revealed that the 91 people were nowhere to be found. There was no trace of them on land, and nothing indicating they were still at sea. 

One month later, we wrote an open letter to all authorities asking about what happened on that day and what they have done to search and rescue the people in distress. We did not receive any answer from any of them.

Only ten months later, when we sent another request to all authorities in December 2020, Frontex responded – clearly the result of increased pressures on the EU border agency and investigations into its participation in push-backs which has prompted international attention and condemnation.  

The picture shared by Frontex, taken on 9 February 2020, shows a deflated rubber boat in a position near the one reported by the 91 people in distress. However, no human remains are visible in the picture.

Throughout the past year, families and friends of the 91 people who were on board the black rubber boat contacted Alarm Phone as well as European authorities in their search for their loved ones, but nobody could give them answers. 

Thanks to these collective efforts and self-organisation by the families, mostly in Darfur, a list of  missing people was created, showing 62 names and many pictures, giving a name, a face, a smile to many of those who European authorities made disappear at sea. 

Without bodies being found, and without clear answers, it is impossible for their families to know their fate and to have closure. 

The 91 people who went missing on 9 February are not accounted for in official statistics, which only count those shipwrecks confirmed by survivors. In absence of witnesses, dozens of shipwrecks are not recorded and acknowledged by international organisations. 

We reject the logic of reducing Black/Migrant people, their lives and their deaths to numbers and statistics. This racist dehumanisation does not account for the loss of Abdul, of Aboubacar, of Adnan, of Afdel. It does not account for the pain inflicted to their mothers, their sisters, their friends. It does not account for the White supremacist violence, by action and by inaction, historical and present, that keeps murdering Black/Migrant lives or lets them die at sea.

The silence and lack of acknowledgement denies entire communities the right to know about what happened to the people who went missing. It denies entire communities the right to bury their loved ones, to mourn them, and to find closure after painful searches. 

Whilst entire communities are affected by this violent silence, they refuse to be silenced and instead mobilise to demand answers. Today, the families and friends of the 91 missing people are gathering in Al Fasher, Darfur, to commemorate their loved ones and to protest against the invisibilisation of disappearance of loved ones.

In solidarity with them, and in solidarity with the friends and families of all people who went missing or were killed by the violent European border regime, today we gather in several cities to demand answers.  

Together with them, we speak their names out loud, to remind Europe that each Black Life matters, that we will not forget, and that we will keep fighting against this racist border regime. 

Together with them, we demand an immediate end to racist violence, to the killing of people on the move, and to their forced disappearance. 

Today and every day we fight to hold Europe accountable for its racist violence, and we fight for freedom of movement for all.

Stop deaths at sea, now!

 

News (EN)

Mediterranea Civil Party in the Case Against Salvini

Today, Mr. Jannelli, the  judge presiding over the preliminary investigations for Palermo’s court in the case against the ex-minister of internal affairs, Matteo Salvini, for illegal confinement and misuse of authority,  has accepted the request to establish Mediterranea Saving Humans as a civil party in the case. We were informed of this by our legal team lawyers, Favio Lanfranca and Serena Romano. We thank them for their efforts and for the passion with which they have always supported the work of Mediterranea.

Today is an especially important moment for us: civil sea rescue, the defense of human rights and of the lives of women, men and children attempting to escape Lybian concentration camps and crying for help at sea are not for once the defendants. They will be, instead, part of the prosecution against a politician who has defacto made his government position a means of violation of principles of humanity, international laws and of the Italian Constitution. Our decision of joining the civil suit is our way to stand with the main injured parties in this trial, the people rescued by Open Arms who had to endure illegal confinement by those who were in power at the time. 

But, it is also a way to express solidarity with our brothers and sisters of the Open Arms crew, and with the crews of all the other search and rescue ships operating in the Mediterranean as part of the Civil Fleet who share with us this dutiful and extraordinary work. Today Mr Salvini is not the only defendant. The Italian and European governments are also on trial for their continued violation of the Hamburg Convention regarding the obligation of rescue at sea and the Geneva Convention on the prohibition of refugee refoulement. Standing in court today to accuse them are those who these (former) ministers have always criminalized but who are, instead, guilty of saving lives rather than letting them drown at sea.

Today we point the finger at those ministers and governments, and, on behalf of all those who have suffered for too long, we say: “We accuse you.”

News (EN)

Bosnia: this inhuman chess game must stop!

“RiVolti ai Balcani” requests the immediate and urgent intervention of European, international and local institutions in the Bihać area, and a long-term solution ensuring the protection of the fundamental human rights of migrants, asylum seekers and refugees.

 

“As a citizen of Bosnia Herzegovina I feel the right to insist and obtain from all political representatives at all levels the immediate assistance to and acceptable accommodation for all migrating people. And I also ask the international community that still has a protectorate in Bosnia Herzegovina to take responsibility for this situation. The crime against humanity that is taking place must stop immediately. People continue to freeze on the roads and in the mountains and the question is when will they start to die. Many citizens are helping individually as best they can, but in order to stop this catastrophe, a specific solution respecting the dignity and human rights of these people is necessary. Those who operate in public, local and international institutions, are responsible for this catastrophe. I do not want and do not accept that Bosnia Herzegovina could once again become a valley of mass graves, synonym of crimes, death and injustice”.

 

“RiVolti ai Balcani” collects and shares the appeals coming from individual citizens, activists and Bosnian volunteers, as well as from the regional network ‘Transbalkanska Solidarnost’, aimed at stopping the humanitarian catastrophe that is taking place especially in the Una Sana Canton where 3000 migrants, asylum seekers and refugees, are having to camp outdoors. Of these, 1500 in the temporary camp of Lipa, 30 km from Bihać, for whom neither local nor international authorities have wanted to find a solution.

 

For months now a growing number of international organisations, associations and volunteers have been denouncing the unsustainable living conditions of these people arriving from the Balkan migration route. First and foremost, the Lipa makeshift camp, not kitted out for the winter months, where water was delivered from a cistern and little energy was produced by generators. Like other transit camps in Bosnia managed by the Organization for Migration (IOM) BiH, but the construction or adjustment of which is headed by the Bosnian authorities.

Despite appeals by the Commissioner for human rights of the Council of Europe and UNHCR and the subsequent – useless – attempt by the Bosnian Council of Ministries to convince the Cantonal authorities to create suitable structures for the reception of migrants, IOM decided to close the camp and on 23rd December – the day foreseen for IOM’s exit – the camp was nearly totally destroyed by a fire.

 

It is snowing and the temperature has fallen below 0°C. Hundreds of people are blocked here, with one single meal a day distributed by the local Red Cross, other hundreds are scattered in the woods without assistance.

“RiVolti ai Balcani” adds its name to other public appeals announced in recent days. The one of 26th December, signed by UNHCR and IOM, together with DRC – Danish Refugee Council and Save the Children that work in BiH, in which local authorities are asked to provide immediate alternative accommodation solutions and the four organisations reiterate their availability to support the efforts of the local authorities and to organize necessary assistance. But also the appeal of the volunteers and activists of ‘No Name Kitchen’, ‘SOS Balkanroute’, Medical Volunteers International and ‘Blindspots’ addressed to the EU and its Member States.

 

The network “RiVolti ai Balcani” – composed of over 36 entities and individuals involved in the protection of human rights and the fundamental principles of the Italian Constitution and European and international norms – request that the European Union, the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees, the EU delegation to the High Representative in Bosnia Herzegovina, the International Organization for Migration, the Council of Ministries of Bosnia Herzegovina, the authorities of the Una Sana Canton and the Bihać Municipality, the authorities of the country’s two Entities – the Federation and Republika Srpska:

  • find an immediate solution to the current humanitarian emergency in the Bihać area and Bosnia Herzegovina in general;
  • define long-term solutions equipping Bosnia Herzegovina with and effective refugee reception and protection system;
  • enact a humanitarian evacuation programme aimed at placing the migrants in all the countries of the European Union.

 

Sign the petition ‘This inhuman chess game must stop!’ at 𝗖𝗵𝗮𝗻𝗴𝗲.𝗼𝗿𝗴: http://chng.it/jNmwZ78pV2

 

 

News (EN)

NO MORE PUSHBACKS

Yesterday in Brussels the democratic and socialist MEPs of the Commission for Civil Liberties and Internal Affairs (LIBE) asked the executive director of Frontex, Fabrice Leggeri, to resign.

The European agency that controls and monitors migratory movements at the EU borders is accused of illegal practices and violations of fundamental rights.

Several inquiries and testimonies from civil organizations have proven the involvement of the European Border Guard in the refoulement of migrants trying to arrive in the EU. Pushbacks are contrary to international agreements for the protection of refugees: no one can be deported or repatriated to a country where their safety is threatened. In yesterday’s session of the Commission for Civil Liberties and Internal Affairs, Fabrice Leggeri deliberately avoided answering questions on pushbacks. The allegations of the S&D parliamentary group refer, in particular, to the pushbacks that occurred at the Greek-Turkish maritime border in the Aegean Sea. However, Frontex’s crimes and omissions do not only take place there.

Thanks to the testimonies collected by various associations and NGOs, it has been possible to document dozens of pushback cases in the Central Mediterranean, in which Frontex, with its air assets, is directly involved. Coordinating the so-called “Libyan Coast Guard”, the European Border Defense Agency has contributed to the capture and deportation of 11,000 women, men and children to Libya since the beginning of the year – persons who had the right to seek asylum.

We ask for the resignation of Mr. Fabrice Leggeri.  We call for the establishment of a European Commission of Inquiry into criminal pushback activities occurring at the borders.  We call for the immediate cessation of the use of Frontex air and naval assets illegally employed to collaborate with the military forces of countries that do not respect human rights.

We ask that all evidence gathered by the Commission on Frontex illegal activities be forwarded to the International Criminal Court.

We will continue to denounce the crimes against humanity that Frontex commits against thousands of human beings at the gates of Europe.

 

https://www.socialistsanddemocrats.eu/newsroom/sds-call-frontex-director-resign

https://www.bellingcat.com/news/2020/10/23/frontex-at-fault-european-border-force-complicit-in-illegal-pushbacks/

News (EN)

#GivingTuesday: A special lunch break

Mediterranea Saving Humans celebrated World Gift Day with a live event on Facebook.  

The event was organized to collect donations for Mediterranea Saving Humans’ mission at sea. Many guests attended the event: Don Luigi Ciotti, Fiorella Mannoia, Valeria Solarino, Lodo and Carota from Lo Stato Sociale, Roy Paci & Picciotto, Dimartino, Shorty, Angel Galzerano and Alessandro Colpani. Only in the first few minutes of the event more than 370 people connected to the event.

An hour of music and testimonies to remember what is happening a few miles away from our coast, in that Mediterranean Sea that many cross every day to escape wars, torture and misery. It is essential for Mediterranea’s to be there, to witness what is happening and report the illegal pushbacks to Libya that continue to take place, and to save those who risk their lives trying to regain a lost dignity.

On World Giving Day, Facebook decided to double the first $2 million donated to registered charities through its platform and to add 10 percent to subsequent donations, until it reached a total of 7 mil USD. Mediterranea, thanks to those who decided to support it, raised more than 15.000 €. Many donors continued donating in the hours following the event as well.

However, we will have to wait until January 5th to find out how many of the donations received by Mediterranea Savng Humans via its American based chapter will be doubled.

These are fundamental resources that will finance the activities of the association. As Don Luigi Ciotti reminded during his speech, “saving humans is written in the logo of Mediterranea and it must become a sign of shared responsibility and commitment for all“.  

It is therefore important not to get used to what is happening in the Mediterranean, to those victims who, as Fiorella Mannoia underlined, “become just numbers; bodies and lives that no one cares about”.  Valeria Solarino added: “Solidarity and inclusion are not just values. They are the pillars of our civil society”.

News (EN)

The MARE JONIO is welcomed by MEDITERRANEA activists as it arrives in Venice for maintenance work

 

Our ship MARE JONIO has arrived in Venice. She will have to stop here for a few weeks for mandatory maintenance work to its hull and engine, as prescribed by the Italian Naval Registry (RINA).
Upon its arrival, she was welcomed by the activists of Mediterranea Venezia, Mediterranean Padova and Mediterranean Vicenza, who wanted to thank this 1972 tugboat and its crew for what they have done over the last two years.

The MARE JONIO left the port of Augusta for her first mission on October 3, 2018. Since then she has directly saved 374 people. Women, men and children, who would otherwise have been swallowed up by the sea or lost into the hell of Libya’s camps.

Through its observation and monitoring activities, the MARE JONIO has contributed to the rescue of hundreds of other shipwrecked people in the Central Mediterranean. She has also played a decisive role in the reopening of Italian ports as a safe place of disembarkation for people fleeing war and violence. All this happened despite the fact that she was seized by the authorities 3 times: two on the grounds of a judicial seizure and one for an administrative seizures. These seizures blocked the MARE JONIO in port for more than ten months. On top of this, the MARE JONIO received four warnings, as many criminal investigations and several “bureaucratic” procedures aimed at hindering her activity.

We would have liked to made the MARE JONIO available to those who wanted to visit it and meet us on board. Unfortunately, the current Covid-19 health emergency and the strict prevention protocols, to which we have always adhered, prevent us from organizing public events on board. Like everyone, we hope to get out of this difficult situation soon. As we have always maintained, this will only be possible thanks to solidarity and cooperation, because “no one is saved alone.”

In the meantime, we want to thank Vento Di Venezia which is kindly hosting the Mare Jonio at its dock on the island of Certosa.

News (EN)

Campaign Launches to Support People Crossing the Channel

A project committed to the monitoring and documentation to ensure the human rights of people crossing the English channel has launched today

 

Channel Rescue is a grassroots human rights monitoring group set up in response to an increased number in channel crossings. They will fact find, document landings, act as legal observers, and support recently arrived people.  Their aim is to ensure that people crossing the channel are offered the aid that is currently protected to them by international law, and to ensure no violations of human rights are committed.

“We have set up channel rescue because we are concerned about the hostile narrative being created by both the government and in some media that have sought to demonize those migrating across the English Channel. In recent weeks we have seen shocking scenes of members of far-right organizations attacking people on beaches and last week the border force trailed push backs. There is a burgeoning humanitarian crisis emerging that risks turning the channel into a graveyard. Women, men and children fleeing war and persecution and in search of safety are risking their lives to arrive on these shores.”  said Max Williams of Channel Rescue.

Crossings of the channel by people seeking asylum have increased in the last few months with people increasingly making the perilous journey by boat. Many of the people arriving in the UK are fleeing conflict and persecution in their own countries and are coming to the UK to seek safety. The Channel Rescue project will organise volunteer shore patrols along beaches of Kent.

“ At the moment we will be starting with regular shore patrols to spot arriving boats, acting as eyes on the sea. If during our patrols, we encounter people in distress we will contact the appropriate authorities such as the coastguard and RNLI.  We recognize and honor the legal and moral requirement to save life at sea as upheld in the 1982 UN convention.”

Despite being the 6th richest country in the world the UK grants a  comparatively low number of  asylum, humanitarian protection or alternative forms of leave and resettlement. In the year to March 2020, just 20,339 people were offered protection by the UK compared too

165,615 asylum applications in Germany, 151,070 in France, 117,800 in Spain and 77,275 in Greece in the same period, according to Eurostat.

 Press Release Channel Rescue

News (EN)

Cardinal Hollerich interview

Cardinal Hollerich: Europe is called to build a future for the whole world

 

Cardinal Jean-Claude Hollerich comments on Pope Francis’ letter to Europe, describing the importance of looking to the future, together, so that significant changes can be made for the entire world.

 

Europe needs new policies to better cater to the needs of our brothers and sisters on the move and it needs to rediscover its Christian identity as it strives to build a peaceful and just future. These are concepts expressed by Cardinal Jean-Claude Hollerich, as he spoke with gratitude of Pope Francis’ letter marking a series of important anniversaries that define the European continent as we know it.

Cardinal Hollerich, President of the Commission of the Bishops’ Conferences of the EU (COMECE) was commenting on the Pope’s letter to Vatican’s Secretary of State, Cardinal Pietro Parolin, on Tuesday. In it, the Pope retraces the history and values of Europe and talks of his dream for fraternity and solidarity among nations amid a period marked by individualistic tendencies.

In an interview with Vatican Radio, Cardinal Hollerich expresses how “thrilled” he is that Pope Francis, “a Pope [from] outside of the European continent, has such a wonderful undertsnding of Europe and can give us such an encouragement.”

There are “so many” policies that need to be considered, says the Cardinal highlighting that one issue the Holy Father mentions in his letter as he looks to the “Europe of the future” is the welcoming of migrants “and the people who have to leave their countries” for various reasons.

Cardinal Hollerich recalls numerous reports COMECE has received over the last few days, specifically mentioning news regarding the actions of Frontex, the European Border and Coast Guard Agency, “at the Greek border, pushing people back into the Mediterranean sea, next to the Libyan border”.

“Surely their policies must change”, he says

Cardinal Hollerich continues by stating that “it is more than a change of policy” that is needed. What needs to change, he says, is how we view the European Union: it is important to “gain a spirit of the founders and have a full view of Europe”.

“We should never forget that Schuman chose to start with the economic part of European integration”, says Hollerich. Though this economic aspect has “developed very much”, he says, there lies the “great danger of the European Union” being reduced from a vision of “European integration to mere economics”, and that could lead to a “reduction of men and women to simple agents of the economy or consumers”.

Cardinal Hollerich expresses joy at hearing Pope Francis say that Europe needs to rediscover its identity. He explains that, to him, this means that “We have a history, and not everything is bad”. Noting that there are “many” bad points, such as the two great wars of the last century, Hollerich states that “we are not the slaves of history”. There is so much that Europe can give to the world, and we must do this with “a new humility,” something that must be done “together, with our sisters and brothers of other continents.”

Finally, Archbishop Hollerich says “I think it’s beautiful that the Pope highlights a certain  European identity which stems from culture and religion – also the cultural part of religion – but which does not linger to the past like a slave.”

“We can build a future.”, he concludes: “We are called to build a future. Not only for us, but for the whole world.”

 

28 October 2020

By Vatican News